Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS (born in Oxford, United Kingdom, January 8, 1942, age 69 years), is a theoretical physicist. He is the Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge University and a member of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He is known for his contributions in the field of quantum physics, especially because his theories about cosmology, quantum gravity, black holes and Hawking radiation. One of his writings is A Brief History of Time, which is listed in the Sunday Times bestseller list in London for 237 consecutive weeks. In 2010 Hawking with Leonard Mladinow compile the book The Grand Design.
Despite having tetraplegia (paralysis) due to amyotrophic lateral amiotrofik, scientific careers continue for more than forty years. The books and public appearances he made as a celebrity academic and theorist of world-renowned physicist.
Early life and education
Stephen Hawking was born on January 8, 1942 from Dr. partner. Frank Hawking, a biologist, and Isobel Hawking. She has two siblings, that is Philippa and Mary, and brother of adoption, Edward. Hawking’s parents lived in North London and moved to Oxford when Hawking was pregnant with her mom to find a safer place. (London at that time was under German Luftwaffe attack).
After Hawking was born, the family returned to London. His father then headed the parasitology division at the National Institute for Medical Research.  In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St. Albans, Hertfordshire. There he attended St. Albans High School for Girls from 1950 to 1953 (in those days, men can get into the girls’ school until the age of ten years). From the age of eleven, Hawking attended St. Albans School.
Hawking was always interested in science. He was inspired by her math teacher named Dikran Tahta to study mathematics at university. His father wanted to Hawking go into University College, Oxford, where his father used to go to school. Hawking then studied natural science. He got a scholarship, and then specialize in physics.
After receiving a degree B.A. at Oxford in 1962, he stayed to study astronomy. He chose to go to learn that studying sunspots are not suitable for him and Hawking more interested in theory rather than observation. Hawking and went to Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He studied theoretical astronomy and cosmology.
Soon after arriving in Cambridge, symptoms of amyotrophic lateral amiotrofik (ALS) that will make him lose almost all control neuromuskularnya began to emerge. In 1974, he was unable to eat or wake up alone. His voice becomes clear that only can be understood by those who knew him well. In 1985, he was exposed to the disease pneumonia and tracheostomy should be done so that he can not speak at all. A Cambridge scientist makes a tool that allows Hawking to write what he wanted to say on a computer, and then will be vocalized through a voice synthesizer. “
Career in theoretical physics
Regarding the existence of extraterrestrial life
Hawking believes that extraterrestrial life exists, and it uses a mathematical basis for his assumption. “According to matematisku brain, the figure shows that the existence of aliens is very rational. The biggest challenge is to estimate what kind of aliens.” He believes that aliens not only exist on the planets, but maybe also in other places, such as stars or floating in the vast space. Hawking also warn that some alien species may have an advanced civilization, and may threaten Earth. Relations with such species can endanger the whole human race. He said, “If aliens visiting us, the result will be the same as when Columbus landed in America, which did not end well for Native Americans.” Hawking also suggested that, rather than trying to contact aliens, we should avoid contact with them.
Hawking married to Jane Wilde, a student of languages, in 1965. Jane Hawking care until their divorce in 1991. They divorced because of the pressure of fame and increased disability Hawking. They have been blessed with three children: Robert (born 1967), Lucy (born 1969), and Timothy (born 1979). Last Hawking married his nurse, Elaine Mason (formerly married to David Mason, a computer designer talk Hawking), in 1995. In October 2006, Hawking asked for a divorce from his second wife.
When asked about the IQ in 2004, Hawking said, “I do not know. People who boast IQ is a loser.”
Hawking took the position of an agnostic in religious matters. He has used the word “God” (metaphorically) to illustrate points in the books and speeches. His ex-wife, Jane, said during divorce proceedings that Hawking is an atheist. Hawking said that he was “not religious in a common sense” and he believed that “the universe is governed by the laws of science. Laws may be made by God, but God did not intervene to break the law.” Hawking to compare religion and science in 2010, said: “There are fundamental differences between religions, which is based on authority, [and] science, which is based on observation and reason. Science will win because it proved.”
In September 2010, The Telegraph reported, “Stephen Hawking has stated that God is not the creator of the universe”. Hawking writes in his book The Grand Design, that “Because of the law such as gravity, the solar system can and will form itself. The creation of spontaneous is the reason why today there is ‘something’ instead of emptiness, why the universe exists and we exist. There is no need asking God to start everything and move the universe. “
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